Also Known As
Hemoglobin Evaluation
Sickle Cell Screen
Hemoglobin Fractionation
Formal Name
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis
Hemoglobin Isoelectric Focusing
Hemoglobin by HPLC
Hemoglobin by Capillary Electrophoresis
This article was last reviewed on
This article waslast modified on March 25, 2021.
At a Glance
Why Get Tested?

To screen for and/or diagnose a hemoglobin disorder called a hemoglobinopathy

When To Get Tested?

When you have abnormal results on a complete blood count (CBC) and/or blood smear that suggest an abnormal form of hemoglobin (hemoglobinopathy); when you have symptoms of hemolytic anemia such as weakness and fatigue and your healthcare practitioner suspects that you have a hemoglobinopathy; when you have a family history of hemoglobinopathy; as part of newborn screening

Sample Required?

A blood sample drawn from a vein; sometime a blood sample is collected by pricking a finger (fingerstick) or the heel (heelstick) of an infant and a few drops of blood are collected in a small tube.

Test Preparation Needed?


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Lab Tests Online is an award-winning patient education website offering information on laboratory tests. The content on the site, which has been reviewed by laboratory scientists and other medical professionals, provides general explanations of what results might mean for each test listed on the site, such as what a high or low value might suggest to your healthcare practitioner about your health or medical condition.

The reference ranges for your tests can be found on your laboratory report. They are typically found to the right of your results.

If you do not have your lab report, consult your healthcare provider or the laboratory that performed the test(s) to obtain the reference range.

Laboratory test results are not meaningful by themselves. Their meaning comes from comparison to reference ranges. Reference ranges are the values expected for a healthy person. They are sometimes called "normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if any of your test results fall outside the range of expected values. Values that are outside expected ranges can provide clues to help identify possible conditions or diseases.

While accuracy of laboratory testing has significantly evolved over the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, chemical reagents, and techniques. This is a reason why so few reference ranges are provided on this site. It is important to know that you must use the range supplied by the laboratory that performed your test to evaluate whether your results are "within normal limits."

For more information, please read the article Reference Ranges and What They Mean.

What is being tested?

A hemoglobinopathy is an inherited blood disorder in which there is an abnormal form of hemoglobin (variant) or decreased production of hemoglobin (thalassemia). A hemoglobinopathy evaluation is a group of tests that determines the presence and relative amounts of abnormal forms of hemoglobin in order to screen for and/or diagnose a hemoglobin disorder.

Hemoglobin (Hb) is the protein in red blood cells (RBCs) that binds to oxygen in the lungs and allows RBCs to carry the oxygen throughout the body, delivering it to the body's cells and tissues. Hemoglobin consists of one portion called heme, which is the molecule with iron at the center, and another portion made up of four globin (protein) chains. Depending on their structure, the globin chains, depending on their structure, have different designations: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The types of globin chains that are present are important in the function of hemoglobin and its ability to transport oxygen.

Normal hemoglobin types include:

  • Hemoglobin A: makes up about 95%-98% of Hb found in adults; it contains two alpha and two beta protein chains.
  • Hemoglobin A2:  makes up about 2%-3% of Hb in adults; it has two alpha and two delta protein chains.
  • Hemoglobin F (fetal hemoglobin): makes up to 1%-2% of Hb found in adults; it has two alpha and two gamma protein chains. This is the primary hemoglobin produced by the fetus during pregnancy; its production usually falls shortly after birth and reaches adult levels by 1-2 years.

Hemoglobinopathies occur when changes (variants) in the genes that provide information for making the globin chains cause changes in the proteins. These genetic variants may result in a reduced production of one of the normal globin chains or in the production of structurally altered globin chains. Approximately 7% of the world's population carry at least one copy of a genetic variant in one of the hemoglobin chains (carrier), and the rate can vary dramatically based on ethnicity. Genetic variants may affect the structure of the hemoglobin, its behavior, its production rate, and/or its stability. The presence of abnormal hemoglobin within RBCs can alter the appearance (size and shape) and function of the red blood cells.

Red blood cells containing abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin variants) may not carry oxygen efficiently and may be broken down by the body sooner than usual (a shortened survival), resulting in hemolytic anemia.

While there are more than 1,000 hemoglobinopathies currently described and novel forms are still being discovered, some of the most common hemoglobin variants include:

  • Hemoglobin S, the primary hemoglobin in people with sickle cell disease that causes the RBC to become misshapen (sickle), decreasing the cell's survival
  • Hemoglobin C, which can cause a minor amount of hemolytic anemia
  • Hemoglobin E, which may cause no symptoms or generally mild symptoms

Thalassemia is a condition in which a gene variant results in reduced production of one of the globin chains. This can upset the balance of alpha to beta chains, leading to decrease in hemoglobin A, causing abnormal forms of hemoglobin to form (alpha thalassemia) or causing an increase of minor hemoglobin components, such as Hb A2 or Hb F (beta thalassemia).

Hemoglobinopathies can be thought of as an alteration of quality of the hemoglobin molecule (how well it functions), while thalassemias are an alteration of quantity.

Many other less common hemoglobin variants exist. Some are silent – causing no signs or symptoms – while others affect the function and/or stability of the hemoglobin molecule.

To learn more about these conditions, read the articles on Hemoglobin Abnormalities and Thalassemia.

A hemoglobinopathy evaluation typically involves tests that determine the types and amounts of hemoglobin. Information from these tests, along with results from routine tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) and blood smear, aid in establishing a diagnosis.

Accordion Title
Common Questions
  • How is the test used?

    A hemoglobinopathy evaluation is used to detect abnormal forms and/or relative amounts of hemoglobin, the protein found in all red blood cells that transports oxygen. Testing may be used for:

    Several different laboratory methods are available to evaluate the types of hemoglobin that a person has. Some of these include:

    • Hemoglobin solubility test: used to test specifically for hemoglobin S, the main hemoglobin in sickle cell disease
    • Hemoglobin gel electrophoresis (Hb ELP)
    • Hemoglobin isoelectric focusing (Hb IEF)
    • Hemoglobin by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
    • Hemoglobin by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)
    • Hemoglobin by mass spectrometry

    These methods evaluate the different types of hemoglobin based on the physical and chemical properties of the different hemoglobin molecules.

    Most of the common hemoglobin variants or thalassemias can be identified using one of these tests or a combination. The relative amounts of any variant hemoglobin detected can aid in a diagnosis. However, a single test is usually not sufficient to establish a diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy. Rather, the results of several different tests are considered. Examples of other laboratory tests that may be performed include:

  • When is it ordered?

    Testing for specific hemoglobinopathies is required as part of state-mandated newborn screening. In addition, it is often used for prenatal screening when a parent is at high risk or when parents have a child who has a hemoglobinopathy.

    An evaluation is usually ordered when results of a complete blood count (CBC) and/or blood smear suggest that you have an abnormal form of hemoglobin.

    Testing may be ordered when a healthcare practitioner suspects that your signs and symptoms are the result of abnormal hemoglobin production. Abnormal forms of hemoglobin often lead to hemolytic anemia, resulting in signs and symptoms such as:

    • Weakness, fatigue
    • Lack of energy
    • Jaundice
    • Pale skin

    Some severe forms of hemoglobinopathies (e.g., sickle cell disease) may result in serious signs and symptoms, such as episodes of severe pain, shortness of breath, enlarged spleen, and growth problems in children.

  • What does the test result mean?

    Care must be taken when interpreting the results of a hemoglobinopathy evaluation. Typically, the laboratory report includes an interpretation by a pathologist with experience in the field of hematology (hematopathologist).

    Results of the evaluation usually report the types of hemoglobin present and the relative amounts. For adults, percentages of normal hemoglobin include:

    • Hemoglobin A1(HB A1): about 95%-98%
    • Hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2): about 2%-3%
    • Hemoglobin F (Hb F): 2% or less

    Some of the most common abnormal forms of hemoglobin that may be detected and measured with this testing include:

    Some less common forms include:

    • Hemoglobin F (Hb F): Hb F may be elevated in several disorders, such as beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.
    • Hemoglobin H (Hb H)
    • Hemoglobin Barts

    Other types that may be identified include:

    • Hemoglobin D
    • Hemoglobin G
    • Hemoglobin J
    • Hemoglobin M
    • Hemoglobin Constant Spring

    Less common forms often are named after the location of the family or families in whom the genetic variant was first identified (i.e.. Hemoglobin Constant Spring).

    Testing may help identify thalassemia by detecting abnormal hemoglobin (e.g., hemoglobin H in alpha thalassemia) or an increase of minor hemoglobin components, such as Hb A2 or Hb F (beta thalassemia).

    Two different abnormal genes can be inherited, one from each parent, that may result in a combination of abnormal hemoglobins detected by testing. This is known as being compound heterozygous or doubly heterozygous. Clinically significant combinations — those that result in significant signs and symptoms — include hemoglobin SC disease (symptoms can mimic sickle cell disease), hemoglobin E – beta thalassemia, and hemoglobin S – beta thalassemia.

    For more information on these conditions, see the articles on Hemoglobin Abnormalities and Thalassemia.

    The following table provides some examples of results that may be seen with a hemoglobinopathy evaluation:

    Results Seen Condition Genes
    Slightly decreased Hb A
    Moderate amount Hb S (about 40%)
    Sickle cell trait One gene copy for Hb S (heterozygous)
    Majority Hb S
    Increased Hb F (up to 10%)
    No Hb A
    Sickle cell disease Two gene copies for Hb S (homozygous)
    Majority Hb C
    No Hb A
    Hemoglobin C disease Two gene copies for Hb C (homozygous)
    Majority Hb A
    Some Hb H
    Hemoglobin H disease (alpha thalassemia) Three out of four alpha genes are mutated (deleted)
    Majority Hb F
    Little or no Hb A
    Beta thalassemia major Both beta genes are mutated
    Majority Hb A
    Slightly Increased Hb A2 (4-8%)
    Hb F may be slightly increased
    Beta thalassemia minor One beta gene is mutated, causing slight decrease in beta globin chain
  • Why is every newborn screened for hemoglobinopathies?

    Newborn screening helps to identify potentially treatable or manageable congenital disorders within days of birth. Potentially life-threatening health problems and serious lifelong disabilities can be avoided or minimized if a condition is quickly identified and treated. Also, since newborn screening programs have mandated testing for certain hemoglobin variants (i.e., Hb S, SC and beta-thalassemia), they have uncovered thousands of children who are carriers. (This is due to new technology, not to an increased prevalence of the gene variants.) Information on carrier status may be important in their future if and when they begin to plan a family.

  • Is there anything else I should know?

    Blood transfusions can interfere with hemoglobinopathy evaluation because any of the methods will detect both the blood donor and your hemoglobin forms, potentially hindering the results. You should wait several months after a transfusion before having this testing done. However, in people with sickle cell disease, the testing may be performed after a transfusion to determine if enough normal hemoglobin has been given to reduce the risk of damage from sickling of red blood cells and prevent sickle cell crisis.

  • How long will it take to get results?

    It depends on the method of testing and the laboratory performing the evaluation. This testing requires specialized equipment and interpretation, thus not every laboratory performs this test. Your sample may be sent to a reference laboratory, so it may take several days before results are available.

  • What is the treatment for hemoglobinopathy?

    Treatment for certain types of hemoglobin disorders may involve supportive care, for example during a sickle cell crisis. The aim is to relieve pain and minimize complications. Sometimes blood transfusions are needed if there is severe anemia. There are some other less common treatments that are available. For more information on these, see the articles on Hemoglobin Abnormalities and Thalassemia as well as the links listed in the Related Content section.

View Sources

Sources Used in Current Review

2020 review performed by Sydney Webb Strickland, PhD, DABCC, Director, LabCorp.

(2020) Baby's First Test Available online at Accessed on 4/23/2020.

(2014) Giardine B, Borg J, Viennas E, Pavlidis C, Moradkhani K, Joly P, Bartsakoulia M, Riemer C, Miller W, Tzimas G, Wajcman H, Hardison RC, Patrinos GP. Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations. Nucleic Acids Res. Jan;42 (Database issue):D1063-9. Available online at Accessed 4/23/2020.

Weatherall, DJ (2008). Hemoglobinopathies worldwide: present and future. Curr Mol Med 8(7):529-9.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Harmening D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Fifth Edition. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Chapters 11 and 12.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, Pp 520-522.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC, Pp 213-224.

(February 8, 2012) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Hemoglobin electrophoresis. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(October 5, 2011) Cheerva A. Alpha Thalassemia. Medscape Review article. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(January 3, 2012) Maakaron J. Sickle Cell Anemia. Medscape Review article. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(May 16, 2012) Carter S. Hemoglobin C Disease. Medscape Reference Article. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(©2012 University of Rochester) Health Encyclopedia. Sickle Cell Disease. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(©2012 University of Rochester) Health Encyclopedia. Alpha Thalassemia. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(©2012 University of Rochester) Health Encyclopedia. Beta Thalassemia. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(©2012 Mayo Medical Laboratories) Test Catalog. Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation. Available online at through. Accessed December 2012.

(Published online August 2011) Kohne E. Hemoglobinopathies. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011 August; 108(31-32): 532–540. Available online at Accessed December 2012.

(©2013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital) Hemoglobin C Trait. Available online at Accessed February 2013.

(September 16, 2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sickle Cell Disease, Data and Statistics. Available online at Accessed February 2013.

Martin, L. (2016 January 31, Updated). Hemoglobin electrophoresis. MedlinePlus Encyclopedia. Available online at Accessed on 02/18/17.

Agarwal, A. et. al. (2017 February Updated). Hemoglobinopathies. ARUP Consult. Available online at Accessed on 02/18/17.

Maakaron, J. et. al. (2016 September 24, Updated). Anemia. Medscape Drugs and Diseases. Available online at Accessed on 02/18/17.

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