Also Known As
HPV DNA
HPV RNA
High-risk HPV
hrHPV
Formal Name
Genital Human Papillomavirus
This article was last reviewed on
This article waslast modified on
January 15, 2018.
At a Glance
Why Get Tested?

To screen for infections in women with the high-risk types of HPV (hrHPV) that are associated with cervical cancer or to follow up on an abnormal Pap test

When To Get Tested?

If you are a woman aged 30 to 65; if you are a woman aged 21 to 29 and have an abnormal Pap test

Sample Required?

A sampling of cells from the cervical area

Test Preparation Needed?

It is recommended that you do not douche or use tampons or vaginal creams, deodorants, or medications for 2 days before the test. Some health practitioners may request that you refrain from sex for 24 to 48 hours before the test. Reschedule the test if you are having your period (menstruating). You may be asked to empty your bladder before the examination.

You may be able to find your test results on your laboratory's website or patient portal. However, you are currently at Lab Tests Online. You may have been directed here by your lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return to your lab's website or portal, or contact your healthcare practitioner in order to obtain your test results.

Lab Tests Online is an award-winning patient education website offering information on laboratory tests. The content on the site, which has been reviewed by laboratory scientists and other medical professionals, provides general explanations of what results might mean for each test listed on the site, such as what a high or low value might suggest to your healthcare practitioner about your health or medical condition.

The reference ranges for your tests can be found on your laboratory report. They are typically found to the right of your results.

If you do not have your lab report, consult your healthcare provider or the laboratory that performed the test(s) to obtain the reference range.

Laboratory test results are not meaningful by themselves. Their meaning comes from comparison to reference ranges. Reference ranges are the values expected for a healthy person. They are sometimes called "normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if any of your test results fall outside the range of expected values. Values that are outside expected ranges can provide clues to help identify possible conditions or diseases.

While accuracy of laboratory testing has significantly evolved over the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, chemical reagents, and techniques. This is a reason why so few reference ranges are provided on this site. It is important to know that you must use the range supplied by the laboratory that performed your test to evaluate whether your results are "within normal limits."

For more information, please read the article Reference Ranges and What They Mean.

What is being tested?

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 100 related viruses. Some types of HPV are considered high risk because they are associated with cancer. HPV tests detect the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of the virus.

Some types of HPV can cause skin warts, while other types can cause genital warts (also called condylomata). Genital HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 79 million Americans are infected with HPV and over 14 million become newly infected each year.

Most HPV infections spread through oral, anal, or genital sex are short-lived and relatively benign. The low-risk types of HPV that cause genital warts can be diagnosed through visual inspection and, therefore, do not require testing. Some HPV tests detect the low-risk types of HPV that cause warts, but the tests are generally not recommended for that purpose.

There are at least 13 types of HPV (such as HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45) that are considered high risk. They do not usually cause visible warts, but long-lasting (persistent) infections are the cause of most cases of cervical cancer and are linked to other, less common cancers, such as those of the vagina, mouth, throat (including the base of the tongue and the tonsils), penis, and anus.

High-risk HPV types 16 and 18 account for about 70% of cervical cancers in the U.S. Each year, more than 13,000 women in the U.S. develop cervical cancer and about 4,000 are expected to die from it. In addition, some studies have also shown that persistent oral infections with high-risk types of HPV are strongly associated with oral cancers, including cancer of the mouth and throat (oropharyngeal cancer). Anal cancer has also been linked to HPV types 16 and 18. These high-risk types can be detected with an HPV test. The test is primarily used to screen for cervical cancer or to identify women at risk of cervical cancer.

How is the sample collected for testing?

A sampling of cells is taken from the cervical area in females during a pelvic examination using a swab or small brush. The sample is then placed into a bottle containing a special liquid preservative. The same sample of cells can be used for both the Pap test and the HPV test.

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?

It is recommended that you do not douche or use tampons or vaginal creams, deodorants, or medications for 2 days before the test. Some health practitioners may request that you refrain from sex for 24 to 48 hours before the test. Reschedule the test if you are having your period (menstruating). You may be asked to empty your bladder before the examination.

Accordion Title
Common Questions
  • How is it used?

    The HPV test is primarily used to screen for cervical cancer and/or identify women who may be at increased risk of cervical cancer. The test determines whether a woman's cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of human papillomavirus (hrHPV). Such an infection, if long-lasting, can cause changes in cervical cells that could lead to cervical cancer. Now that hrHPV infection is known to be the cause of most cases of cervical cancer, HPV testing has become an essential part of women's health screening.

    Currently, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), and the American Cancer Society (ACS) recommend the following options for routine cervical cancer screening in average-risk women aged 30 to 65 years:

    • Co-testing with a Pap test and high-risk HPV test every 5 years (preferred), or
    • Pap tests every 3 years (acceptable)

    Significant changes to these recommendations may be on the horizon, however. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a high-risk HPV test as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer, meaning it may be used without a Pap test. Individual health organizations have yet to update their screening recommendations, but an expert panel issued interim (temporary) guidelines in 2015. (Read Experts Offer Advice on hrHPV Testing as a Primary Screen for Cervical Cancer.) Among the recommendations:

    • The HPV test may be offered to women aged 25 to 65 without a Pap test.
    • If initial results are negative, women should be screened again no sooner than 3 years.

    More information about the use of the hrHPV test as the primary means of screening for cervical cancer will be forthcoming as the risks and benefits are further evaluated.

    Because HPV infections are relatively common in women younger than 25 and often go away without treatment or complications, HPV screening is not recommended. However, HPV testing may be used as a follow-up test in women between the ages of 21 and 29 years who have abnormal results on a Pap test known as "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) [see Pap Test Terminology]. Results may be used to determine the need for colposcopy, a procedure that allows a health practitioner to visually inspect the vagina and cervix under magnification for the presence of abnormal cells.

    See Screening: Cervical Cancer (Adults), Cervical Cancer (Adults 50 and Up)

  • When is it ordered?

    Several organizations currently recommend HPV testing along with a Pap test (co-testing) every 5 years as part of routine cervical cancer screening for average-risk women 30 to 65 years of age. Women aged 25 to 65 may choose the option of screening with an HPV test without a Pap test every 3 years.

    More frequent screening is advised for women with risk factors such as exposure to DES (diethylstilbestrol) in utero, previous diagnosis of a high-grade precancerous cervical lesion or cervical cancer, HIV infection, or a compromised immune system.

    HPV testing may be performed when a woman has abnormal changes on a Pap test.

  • What does the test result mean?

    HPV test results and Pap test results go hand-in-hand when determining a woman's risk for cervical cancer. Co-testing with an HPV test and Pap test, as recommended by current guidelines, can determine whether cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of HPV and identify abnormal changes in cervical cells.

    The following chart outlines the meaning of possible co-testing results and includes the American Cancer Society (ACS), American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) recommendations for follow up. Remember, co-testing is currently recommended for women aged 30 to 65 years.

    Co-testing Results What Results Might Mean Recommended Follow Up
    HPV test negative, Pap test normal Cervical cancer risk is low at the present time. Repeat co-testing in 5 years (or Pap test alone in 3 years)
    HPV test positive, Pap test normal Cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of HPV, but no abnormalities found in cervical cells. Option 1: Repeat co-testing in 12 months
    Option 2: Test for presence of HPV-16 or HPV-18
    - If HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 present, colposcopy recommended
    - If HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 not present, repeat co-testing in 12 months
    HPV test negative, Pap test result unclear (ASCUS) No HPV infection; changes in cervical cells may be the result of infection, inflammation, or hormonal changes and are likely to clear up without treatment. Repeat co-testing in 3 years
    HPV test positive, Pap test result unclear (ASCUS) Cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of HPV. The infection is the likely cause of abnormalities in your cervical cells. Colposcopy to examine cervical cells under magnification
    HPV test negative, Pap test abnormal (low-grade changes) No HPV infection; cause of abnormal cervical cells unknown Option 1: Repeat co-testing in 12 months
    Option 2: Colposcopy to examine cervical cells under magnification
    HPV test positive, Pap test abnormal (low-grade changes) Cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of HPV, which is the likely cause of abnormal cell growth. Colposcopy to examine cervical cells under magnification and treatment of precancerous growths, if present

    If a Pap test is performed without an HPV test, the presence of abnormal cervical cells indicates the need to perform an HPV test to determine whether HPV infection is the cause of the cellular changes.

    If an HPV test is performed without a Pap test, the 2015 interim guidelines suggested some follow-up steps that can be taken based on results of an initial hrHPV test. (They noted that these are based on limited data currently. Major studies are ongoing, however, and more data are expected soon.)

    • After a negative result on an initial hrHPV test, a woman should not be re-screened for 3 years.
    • A positive result for high-risk type HPV-16 or HPV-18 should be followed up with colposcopy.
    • A positive result for the other 12 high-risk HPV types, such as HPV-31 and HPV-45, should be followed up with a Pap smear.
      • A positive Pap smear would be followed up with colposcopy.
      • A negative Pap smear would prompt follow-up testing in 12 months.

    The most common HPV test detects DNA from several high-risk HPV types but cannot identify the specific subtype(s) that are present. Other tests are able to tell whether there is DNA or RNA from HPV types 16 and 18, the two types that cause 70% of cervical cancers.

  • Is there anything else I should know?

    Most people who become infected with high-risk types of HPV never develop precancerous changes or cancer.

    Being infected with HPV does not necessarily mean that your partner is having sex outside your relationship. The HPV virus can hide in cervical cells for many years; so if either of you has ever had sex with another partner, you can pass the infection to your current partner.

    Although very rare, a pregnant woman may pass HPV to her baby during vaginal delivery, resulting in warts in the throat or voice box (laryngeal papillomatosis or recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, RRP).

    Being infected with HPV will not make it difficult for you to get pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term. However, some methods of treating precancerous growths resulting from HPV infection can make it more difficult to get pregnant or have an uncomplicated delivery.

  • How is HPV treated?

    There is no treatment for the virus itself, but the body's immune system is usually able to fight it off within a few years. There are treatments, however, for the diseases the virus causes. Genital warts can be removed using chemicals, by freezing them or burning them off electrically, or via surgery or lasers. For most people, this treatment will clear the warts. If warts return repeatedly, a health practitioner may try injecting them with the drug interferon. Untreated genital warts can disappear on their own, stay the same, or grow in size and number and cluster in large masses.

    Precancerous growths on the cervix can be treated in a variety of ways, from cryosurgery that freezes and destroys abnormal cells to surgical removal of problem tissue. Catching cervical changes early is the key to avoiding cervical cancer, which is more difficult to treat.

  • How can HPV be prevented?

    Although monogamy (having sex with only one partner) will not keep you from becoming infected with HPV if either of you has ever had sex with someone who was infected, limiting your number of sex partners will reduce your risk of infection.

    Using condoms may reduce the risk of spreading HPV, but only the skin that is covered by or comes in contact with the condom is protected from HPV. The virus can infect any uncovered skin on the genitals, groin, thighs, anus, and rectum and possibly in the mouth.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved three vaccines that protect against HPV.

    • Gardasil® protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. (Types 16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancers, while types 6 and 11 cause about 90% of genital warts.)
    • Gardasil 9 protects against the same HPV types as Gardasil plus 5 additional types that cause about 15% of cervical cancers.
    • Ceravix® protects against HPV types 16 and 18.

    All three vaccines are approved for use in girls and women 9 to 26 years of age, and the two Gardasil vaccines are approved for the prevention of genital warts in boys and men 9 through 26 years of age. The vaccines are given in 3 doses over a period of 6 months. The same vaccine should be used each time a dose is administered.

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that both girls and boys receive the HPV vaccine series when they are 11 to 12 years old. The vaccine is also recommended for men up to 21 and women up to 26 years of age who did not receive it when they were younger.

    The FDA says the vaccines are considered safe but are only effective if given before an initial exposure to the virus. AAP recommends that young people who are sexually active still receive the vaccination, as those already infected with one type of HPV infection may benefit from the protection against other types included in the vaccine.

  • Are men screened for HPV infection?

    Men are not routinely screened for HPV infection unless they fall into a category at high risk for cancer, such as those with compromised immune systems or men who have sex with men. Currently, there are no tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to detect HPV in males; however, some specialty labs have validated DNA tests for analyzing anal swabs from males. As in cervical samples, positive results will need to be followed up by the healthcare provider with further testing, including a more thorough exam and possible biopsy.

  • I'm a woman who has had the HPV vaccine. Do I need cervical cancer screening?

    Yes. Because currently available HPV vaccines do not protect against all cervical cancers, women who have been vaccinated still need routine screening.

  • I've had a hysterectomy. Do I still need cervical cancer screening?

    Women who have had a total hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and cervix) no longer need to be screened for cervical cancer unless the hysterectomy was done to treat cervical cancer or precancer. Women who have had a hysterectomy without removal of the cervix (supracervical hysterectomy) should continue to be screened for cervical cancer.

  • Other than HPV, what are other risk factors for cervical cancer in women?

    According to the American Cancer Society, certain factors can further raise cervical cancer risk after an HPV infection. These include having many children, long-term oral contraceptive (birth control pill) use, and chlamydia infection.

    Increased risk is also associated with beginning sexual intercourse at an early age and having multiple sex partners, infrequent Pap tests, smoking, a history of exposure to DES (a drug given to some women between 1940 and 1971 to prevent miscarriage), previous diagnosis of cervical cancer, compromised immune system from organ transplant or HIV, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes.

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