Formal Name
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening
This article was last reviewed on
This article waslast modified on December 6, 2019.
At a Glance
Why Get Tested?

To determine whether you are a carrier of the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and could potentially spread it to other people

When To Get Tested?

When you have no signs or symptoms of an active infection, but a healthcare practitioner wants to determine if you are a MRSA carrier, such as when you are hospitalized

Sample Required?

Swab of the nose; occasionally, swab of wound infection site or skin lesion

Test Preparation Needed?


You may be able to find your test results on your laboratory's website or patient portal. However, you are currently at Lab Tests Online. You may have been directed here by your lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return to your lab's website or portal, or contact your healthcare practitioner in order to obtain your test results.

Lab Tests Online is an award-winning patient education website offering information on laboratory tests. The content on the site, which has been reviewed by laboratory scientists and other medical professionals, provides general explanations of what results might mean for each test listed on the site, such as what a high or low value might suggest to your healthcare practitioner about your health or medical condition.

The reference ranges for your tests can be found on your laboratory report. They are typically found to the right of your results.

If you do not have your lab report, consult your healthcare provider or the laboratory that performed the test(s) to obtain the reference range.

Laboratory test results are not meaningful by themselves. Their meaning comes from comparison to reference ranges. Reference ranges are the values expected for a healthy person. They are sometimes called "normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if any of your test results fall outside the range of expected values. Values that are outside expected ranges can provide clues to help identify possible conditions or diseases.

While accuracy of laboratory testing has significantly evolved over the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, chemical reagents, and techniques. This is a reason why so few reference ranges are provided on this site. It is important to know that you must use the range supplied by the laboratory that performed your test to evaluate whether your results are "within normal limits."

For more information, please read the article Reference Ranges and What They Mean.

What is being tested?

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are strains of Staphylococcus aureus, or "staph," bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic methicillin as well as to related beta-lactam antibiotics, such as oxacillin, penicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins, that are used to treat ordinary staph infections. MRSA testing detects the presence of MRSA in a patient's sample.

Staphylococcus aureus frequently colonizes the human skin and is present in the nose of about a third of U.S. adults. It does not usually cause illness or symptoms. However, if there is a break in someone's skin from a wound or surgery, or if someone's immune system is weakened, then colonizing S. aureus can cause an infection.

Widespread use of antibiotics over the past several decades have led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus. Infection with these strains can cause skin infections and potentially more severe, life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections (septicemia), or infections at a surgical site. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), less than 2% of the population carries the type of staph bacteria known as MRSA. [For more on this, see the article Staph Infections and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.]

MRSA can be spread in healthcare settings and in the community. Contaminated hands, medical equipment, and surfaces in places such as hospitals, clinics, or nursing homes allow the spread of MRSA from colonized or infected patients. In the community, anything that allows for skin-to-skin contact can spread MRSA. This includes sharing personal care items, participating in contact sports, or living or working in close contact with others.

Most hospitals have instituted measures to attempt to eradicate MRSA and to control the spread of MRSA from person to person. Those who test positive for MRSA may be isolated to prevent the spread to others and/or decolonized with a nasal antibiotic ointment and daily cleansing with special antimicrobial wipes. However, exactly how to implement MRSA screening and control in healthcare settings remains somewhat controversial. For example, a 2014 study comparing prevention strategies for bloodstream infections found that treating to eliminate MRSA from intensive care unit (ICU) patients who screen positive was not as effective at reducing these infections as treating all patients admitted to the ICU. This treatment may involve administering antibiotics within the nose and cleansing patients with special antimicrobial wipes. As a result, hospital policies may change in the future and less MRSA screening may be performed in these settings.

How is the sample collected for testing?

A nasal swab is collected by rotating a swab inside each nostril. Occasionally, a swab of a wound infection site or skin lesion is collected.

Accordion Title
Common Questions
  • How is it used?

    A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screen tests solely for the presence of MRSA and no other microbes. It is primarily used to identify the presence of MRSA in a colonized person so they can be treated to eliminate MRSA and prevent its spread to others.

    Often, the test is used to screen for MRSA in patients in hospitals, especially in intensive care units. On a community level, MRSA screening may be used to help determine the source of an outbreak. On a national level, additional testing may inform clinicians and researchers about the unique genetic characteristics of the strains of MRSA circulating in the community or healthcare setting. 

    MRSA screening tests include:

    • Bacterial culture - a nasal swab is collected from the nares (nostrils) of an asymptomatic person and cultured (put onto a special nutrient medium, incubated, and then examined for the growth of characteristic MRSA colonies). A swab may be collected from a wound site or skin lesion of a person who has been previously treated for a MRSA infection and cultured similarly. A screening culture identifies the absence or presence of MRSA and usually takes 1 to 2 days for a result.
    • Molecular tests for MRSA screening can detect nasal or wound carriage within hours, allowing for prompt treatment as necessary. The same specimen types are used in a molecular test, but the specimen is analyzed for the genetic markers to identify S. aureus and the mecA gene that confers resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin, and other similar antibiotics. Molecular MRSA screening is becoming more widespread.

    Some hospitals have instituted measures to control the spread of MRSA by screening those patients they feel are at risk of being colonized with these resistant bacteria (a carrier) or all new admissions to the hospital. When an outbreak of MRSA is under investigation, screening of healthcare workers, family members, and close contacts may be performed to identify the source of the infection and to help devise a plan to contain these infections. In some settings, such as nursing homes, a large number of people may be screened to evaluate the spread of colonization in a specific population.

  • When is it ordered?

    A MRSA screening test may be ordered when a healthcare practitioner, hospital, or health department needs to evaluate potential MRSA colonization in an individual, their family members, and/or a group of people in the community as the source of a MRSA infection.

    Specific populations that have close physical contact, such as a sports team, residents of a nursing home, or healthcare workers, may be tested for MRSA carrier status when an outbreak of MRSA is suspected.

    Occasionally, a person who has been treated for MRSA may be screened to determine whether MRSA are still present.

  • What does the test result mean?

    If either a culture or a molecular test is positive for MRSA, then the bacteria are present at the site that was tested, such as the nostrils or a wound site.

    If the nasal screen or wound site culture is negative, then MRSA are either not present or are present in numbers too low to be detected by the test.

  • Is there anything else I should know?

    Further testing may be performed on MRSA bacteria when they are isolated in a culture. These additional research tests can identify the type and subtype of S. aureus strains. Although the typing may not be used to determine treatment of the patient, it provides information to track the pattern of disease spread of the infection and characterize the toxins and other virulence factors present in the bacteria.

  • Can I get MRSA more than once?

    Yes, being successfully treated for MRSA colonization does not prevent you from getting it again.

  • Can I be colonized with MRSA and not know it?

    Yes, those who are carriers are healthy individuals without signs and symptoms of infection.

  • How can I protect myself from getting a MRSA infection?

    You should wash your hands thoroughly and frequently and always clean and cover an open wound with a protective bandage.

    Avoid sharing personal items, such as towels, soap, razors, or sports equipment, and wash athletic clothes after each wearing.

View Sources

Sources Used for Current Review

MRSA. Available online at Accessed January 2017.

Coia, J. E. and Reilly, J. (2014 February). Screening for meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): who, when, and how? BMJ. Available online at Accessed January 2017.

(Updated 2014 March). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Available online at Accessed January 2017.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015 September 9). MRSA infection. Mayo Clinic. Available online at Accessed January 2017.

(Updated 2016 April 15). Laboratory Testing for MRSA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at Accessed January 2017.

(Updated 2016 May 16). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at Accessed January 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Harbarth, S. et. al. (2006 February 27). Evaluation of Rapid Screening and Pre-Emptive Contact Isolation for Detecting and Controlling Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Critical Care, An Interventional Cohort Study. [On-line information]. Available online at

(2005 February 2). Laboratory Detection of: Oxacillin/Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at

(2005 February 3). Community-Associated MRSA Information for Clinicians. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at

(2006 March 7). The Growing Menace of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of Internal Medicine v144 (5).

Seybold, U. et. al. (2006 March 1). Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Genotype as a Major Cause of Health Care-Associated Blood Stream Infections. CID 2006:42 pp 647-654 [On-line journal].

Fridkin, S. (2005 April 7). Methicillin-Resistant Staphyloccus aureus Disease in Three Communities. N Engl J Med 352;14.

Case, M. (2006 March 15). Fast staph test limits spread, at a high price. [On-line information]. Available online at

Peck, P. (2006 February 6). Fast MRSA Test Cuts Infection Rate in Medical ICU. Medpage Today [On-line information]. Available online at

Waknine, Y. (2006 March 31). Highlights from MMWR: Outbreaks of MRSA Infection in Newborns and More [On-line information]. Available online at

Kuehnert, M. et. al. (2005). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Hospitalizations, United States. Medscape from Emerg Infect Dis 11 (6) [On-line information]. Available online at

Creech II, C. et. al. (2005 July). Increasing Rates of Nasal Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Health Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal v24 (7) 617-621.

Bradley, S. (2006 February 22). Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia: Emergence of MRSA in the Community. Medscape from Semin Respir Crit Care Med [On-line information]. Available online at

(2006). "Search and Destroy" Strategy Can Reduce Nosocomial MRSA Prevalence. Medscape from Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at

(2006). New Test Diagnoses MRSA in One Day. Medscape from Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at

Goossens, H. (2006). Antibiotic Resistance: Highlights of the 16th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Medscape [On-line information]. Available online at

Bartlett, J. (2005). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile - Deal Bacterial Threats. Medscape [On-line information]. Available online at

(2006). Community-Acquired MRSA a Leading Cause of Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections. Medscape from Reuters Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at

David, M. et. al. (2006 April 21). Contrasting Pediatric and Adult Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Medscape from Emerg Infect Dis 12(4): 631-637. Available online at

(Updated 2009 September 28). Recognize and Prevent MRSA Infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at Accessed March 2009.

(Updated 2009 June 18). FDA Clears First Quick Test For Drug-Resistant Staph Infections, Test Identifies MRSA Bacterium in Two Hours. U.S. [On-line information]. Available online at Accessed March 2009.

Dugdale, D. et. al. (Updated 2009 May 30). MRSA. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at Accessed March 2009.

(2010 January 21). Genetics Used to Track Transmission of MRSA Bacteria. MedlinePlus HealthDay [On-line information]. Available online at Accessed March 2009.

(Updated 2009 July 22) MRSA and the Workplace. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [On-line information]. Available online at Accessed March 2009.

Martinez, J. (Updated 2009 December 16). MRSA Skin Infection in Athletes. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at Accessed March 2009.

Susan S. Huang, et al. Targeted versus Universal Decolonization to Prevent ICU Infection. NEJM 368;24. June 13, 2103. MRSA infection. Available online at Accessed July 2013. MRSA. Available online at Accessed July 2013. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Available online at Accessed July 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections. Available online at Accessed July 2013.

Ask a Laboratory Scientist

This form enables patients to ask specific questions about lab tests. Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science. Please allow 2-3 business days for an email response from one of the volunteers on the Consumer Information Response Team.

Thank you for using the Consumer Information Response Service ("the Service") to inquire about the meaning of your lab test results.  The Service is provided free of charge by the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science, which is one of many laboratory organizations that supports Lab Tests Online.
Please note that information provided through this free Service is not intended to be medical advice and should not be relied on as such. Although the laboratory provides the largest single source of objective, scientific data on patient status, it is only one part of a complex biological picture of health or disease. As professional clinical laboratory scientists, our goal is to assist you in understanding the purpose of laboratory tests and the general meaning of your laboratory results. It is important that you communicate with your physician so that together you can integrate the pertinent information, such as age, ethnicity, health history, signs and symptoms, laboratory and other procedures (radiology, endoscopy, etc.), to determine your health status. The information provided through this Service is not intended to substitute for such consultations with your physician nor specific medical advice to your health condition.
By submitting your question to this Service, you agree to waive, release, and hold harmless the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science and its affiliates or their past or present officers, directors, employees, agents, and Service volunteers (collectively referred to as "ASCLS") and the American Association  for Clinical Chemistry and its affiliates or their past or present officers, directors, employees, agents, and Service volunteers (collectively referred to as "AACC") from any legal claims, rights, or causes of action you may have in connection with the responses provided to the questions that you submit to the Service.
AACC, ASCLS and its Service volunteers disclaim any liability arising out of your use of this Service or for any adverse outcome from your use of the information provided by this Service for any reason, including but not limited to any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the information provided through this Service.